While Japanese-branded vehicles continue to dominate in terms of long-term vehicle quality, the Europeans have lost their edge over the US domestic-branded vehicles, according to the JD Power and Associates 2003 Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS). The 2003 study, which measures problems reported by original owners of 2000 model-year vehicles in the United States at three years of ownership, finds that although there is near parity between US domestic models and European brands in terms of initial quality, substantial quality gaps appear between the domestics and the Europeans in long-term durability. On average, models made by US car makers outpace the Europeans by 49 problems per 100 (PP100) vehicles at three years of ownership.