To continue to encourage and 'derisk' invention and innovation in the UK's automotive industry the Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC) was established in 2013 as a result by intervention by the UK government and the industry (the UK's Automotive Council). The APC has been funded with GBP1bn with half of the fund stemming from the government and half from industry. Its brief is simple, but complex: support the UK industry's move to low carbon solutions and create an ecosystem that supports R&D, thus ending the dreaded 'valley of death'.