Nearly 60% to 70% of the recalls in major automotive markets such as North America and Europe are due to software glitches. Volume cars have at least 20m to 30m lines of software code, while in premium cars, that number could be as high as 100m. At an average cost of US$10 per line, these electronic systems do not come cheap. Therefore, recalls will not only leave a dent on original equipment manufacturers' (OEMs') reputation, but also lead to multi-billion dollar losses.