The buzz over the last few years regarding modules such as brake corner has led the industry to believe that the progression from discrete components into modules is a mere formality. This is not necessarily the case. Take front-end modules (FEM) for example. A FEM generally includes a bumper, lights, radiator, latches, hoses, and wiring, and in total includes more than 100 separate components. While accepted throughout Europe, the FEM is now experiencing the supplier learning curve and slow growth to acceptance that once faced other modules.