Back to the late 1990s, the auto industry had great expectations for gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems. The technology was heralded as the panacea for fuel economy and emissions, with a potential 20% improvement in both compared to conventional gasoline engines. At the time, manufacturers predicted that GDI engines would represent 25% of the total European engine market by 2004. But where are the results? Matthew Beecham reports.