In the late 1990s, the automotive industry had great expectations for gasoline (petrol) direct injection (GDI). The technology was heralded as the panacea for fuel economy and emissions, with a potential 20% improvement in both compared to conventional gasoline engines. At the time, manufacturers predicted that GDI engines would represent 25% of the total European engine market by 2003. But where are the results today? Well, it is certainly true that volumes of GDI vehicles on the road today fall well short of the predictions made four or five years ago.