The demands on modern engine-cooling systems are complex. Although increased performance, reduced fuel consumption, longer durability and cleaner emissions may appear to be at odds with each other, the engine-cooling supplier must address them. No matter what kind of radiator is used, the principle is the same - to transfer heat efficiently and to keep costs low in the process. Important aspects now include the optimisation of the cooling airflow and the cooling circuit, as well as refinement of thermo-management for control and regulation.